Óglaigh Na HÉireann
Poblacht na h Éireann.
The Provisional Government
To the people of Ireland.
IRISHMEN AND IRISHWOMEN: In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.
Having organised and trained her manhood through her secret revolutionary organisation, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and through her open military organisations, the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army, having patiently perfected her discipline, having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal itself, she now seizes that moment, and, supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe, but relying in the first on her own strength, she strikes in full confidence of victory.
We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty: six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State, and we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and its exaltation among the nations.
The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the allegiance of every Irishman and Irishwoman. The Republic guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities to all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien government, which have divided a minority from the majority in the past.
Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the Provisional Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.
We place the cause of the Irish Republic under the protection of the Most High God, Whose blessing we invoke upon our arms, and we pray that no one who serves that cause will dishonour it by cowardice, inhumanity, or rapine. In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called…
Signed on Behalf of the Provisional Government.
Thomas J. Clarke
Seán Mac Diarmada – Thomas MacDonagh
Pádraig H. Pearse – Éamonn Ceannt
1916 EASTER RISING TIMELINE…
Easter Sunday – 23rd April 1916…
Macneills countermand appeared that morning in the sunday independent. The Military Council met in Liberty Hall to discuss the implications of the countermand. They decided to go ahead with the Rising but to postpone it till the following day, Easter Monday, that gave them enough time to send couriers throughout the land to inform the Irish Volunteers that indeed the Rising was still taking place. On Sunday the Proclamation was printed in Liberty Hall witch was there for the use of the ITGWU. As there was not enough type of the required size to set the entire document, the type setting and the printing was done in two stages witch partly accounts for the different densities of ink on the upper and lower half of the Proclamation.
Easter Monday – 24th April 1916…
Most of those who took part in the Rising assembled at Liberty hall before proceeding from there to their allotted positions around the city, most of witch were occupied by the afternoon. Following the occupation of the GPO Pearse proclaimed the establishment of the Irish republic. As Commandant General of the Dublin Brigade of the Army of the Irish republic, in theory James Connolly directed the military operations of all the positions held in the name of the Irish Republic, in practice, however due to his inability to provide worthwile armaments or reinforcements, the Commandants of the outlying positions generally had to rely on their own devices. In the course of Monday afternoon and evening the british organised a hurried response and engaged most of the positions occupied by the Volunteers. City Hall came under intense attack and the officer in charge Captain Séan Connolly was shot dead. The few remaining members of the garrison surrendered later that night. Commandant Ceant`s position at the South Dublin Union also came under intense pressure but the garrison repulsed the attacks. An outpost set up by Commandant Mallin in J & T Davies ( now Portabello ) public house at the junction of South Richmond Street and Charlemont Street had to be abandoned within a matter of hours in the face of intense fire.
Easter Tuesday – 25th April 1916…
General W.H.M. Lowe was given command of operations in Dublin. Army reinforcements from Belfast, the Curragh, Templemore and Athlone enabled the british to begin the cordoning off of the positions held by the Volunteers. Machine gun fire from the Shelbourne Hotel forced Commandant Mallin to evacuate most of Saint Stephens Green and concentrate his forces in the Royal College of Surgeons. Looting became widespread in the City Centre. That evening the Viceroy, Lord Wimborne proclaimed martial law throughout Dublin City and County.
Easter wednesday – 26th April 1916…
Commandant Ned Daly`s Men in the area of the Four Courts burned the Lenenhall Barracks. At noon Commandant Séan Houston and the Garrison at the Mendicity institution were forced to surrender. The military cordon seperating the Volunteers to the North and South of the river Liffey were extended and strengthened as reinforcements became available. The british gunboat Helga on the Liffey and field guns to the south of the Liffey commenced shelling Liberty Hall and the area around the GPO. army reinforcements from england arrived at kingstown ( now Dun Laoghaire ) but wer held up at Mount Street Bridge ( an outpost of Commandant Eamon de Valera`s position at Bolands Bakery ) on their way into Dublin. The british suffered heavy losses before the few surviving Volunteers were forced to withdraw. General Maxwell was appointed to take command of the forces in Ireland. In the inner City there were great scarcity of essential foodstuffs such as bread and milk.
Easter Thursday – 27th April 1916…
Chief Secretary Birrell arrived in Dublin but had little function as the military were now in control. Artillery pounded the east side of Sackville Street setting Clearys and other buildings on fire. The Helga shelled Commandant de Vallera`s position at Bolands Bakery but its fire was mainly directed at the empty distillery. The british launched a major assault on Commandant Ceannt`s position at the South Dublin Union, while they captured and held some buildings within the Union complex, the engagement resulted in stalemate. While directing operations in Middle Abbey Street, James Connolly was seriously injured in the ankle but continued to direct military opperations. As the military cordon now effectively seperated the remaining Volunteers to the north and South of the river Liffey, Connolly`s lines of communication with most of the outlying positions were severed and there was no longer any form of centralised command structure.
Easter Friday – 28th april 1916…
General Maxwell arrived in Dublin early that morning. Also that morning Pearse issued a statement admitting that the Rising was almost over, but claiming that the Volunteers would win the fight “Aldough they might win it in death”. At Ashbourne, Co. Meath, Commandant Thomas Ashe and the 5th Dublin Bittalion had the greatest success of the Rising when they forced a large contingent of police to surrender. by evening the GPO was on fire, the garrison eveauated to houses in the Moore Street area. The O`Rahilly was mortally wounded while leading a charge to clear the way for the evacuation. That night there was intense fighting in the North King Street area held by Commandant Ned daly`s Men.
Easter Saturday – 29th April 1916…
On Saturday morning the five members of the Provisional Government, who had evacuated from the GPO the previous evening, decided to negotiate a surrender to prevent further loss of life. nurse elizabeth O`Farrell delivered a message from Pearse to the british General who would agree only to unconditional surrender. That afternoon Pearse surrendered unconditionally to general Lowe. connolly, Clarke, macdiarmada and Plunkett and their forces in the Sackville Street area surrendered later that day and were held in the grounds of the Rotunda hospital overnight. Commandant Daly and most of the Men in the Four Courts area also surrendered late on Saturday Evening.
Easter Sunday – 30th April 1916…
News of the surrender was conveyed that still held out, mainly the south Dublin Union, jacobs biscuit factory, the royal College of Surgeons and Bolands bakery, all of witch surrendered reluctantly. The police and military now turned their attention to rounding up those susespected of being directly or indirectly involved in the Rising. A total of approximately 3.500 were arrested throughout the county, of whom about 2.000 were interned.
The Rest is History…
The Struggle for Irelands Freedom Continues, I Sum Up With Some of Our Past Martyrs Speeches That Could`v Been Written With Todays Generation In Mind…
“Our freedom must be had at all hazards. If the men of property will not help us they must fall; We will free ourselves by the aid of that large and respectable class of the community – the men of no property.” – Theobald Wolfe Tone.
“As long as Ireland is unfree the only honourable attitude for Irish men and women to have is an attitude of rebellion.” – Pádraig Pearse.
“The ownership of Ireland, moral and material, is vested of right in the people of Ireland and to “sink all difference of birth property and creed under the common name of Irish people.”
“An Ireland Unfree shall never be at peace…An Ireland not merely free but Gaelic aswell.”
“If you don’t stand for something you will fall for anything.”
“As well might you leave the fairies to plough your land or the idle winds to sow it, as sit down and wait for freedom.” – Thomas Davis.
“Abject tears, and prayers submissive – Have they eyes, and cannot see? Never a country gained her freedom when she sued on bended knee.”
“Yes, ruling by fooling, is a great British art with great Irish fools to practice on.” – James Connolly From The Irish Worker – September 1914.
“You may kill the revolutionary but never the revolution.”
“A TRUE PEACE will come when Ireland is ONE.”
1916 Executions at Kilmainham Prison, Dublin.
13 of the Leaders of 1916 were executed at the spot marked by the Black Cross in the Stonebreakers’ Yard. May they Rest in Peace for the ultimate sacrifice which they made.
Patrick Pearse, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 3rd 1916, RIP.
Thomas Clarke, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 3rd 1916, RIP
Thomas MacDonagh, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 3rd 1916, RIP.
Joseph Plunkett, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 4th 1916, RIP.
Edward Daly Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 4th 1916, RIP.
Michael O’Hanrahan Irish Volunteers, Irish Transvaal Brigade, May 4th 1916, RIP.
William Pearse, Irish Volunteers, May 4th 1916, RIP.
John MacBride, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, Irish Transvaal Brigade, May 5th 1916, RIP.
Con Colbert, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 8th 1916, RIP.
Eamonn Ceannt, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 8th 1916, RIP.
Michael Mallin, 2 I/C Irish Citizen Army, May 8th 1916, RIP.
Seán Heuston, Irish Volunteers, May 8th 1916, RIP.
Seán Mac Diarmada, Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Volunteers, May 12th 1916, RIP.
James Connolly, Commander, Irish Citizen Army, was executed at the other end of the Stonebreakers’ Yard he could not walk due to a shattered ankle from a bullet during the Rising. He was tied to a chair and shot by firing squad. May 12th 1916, RIP.
Thomas Kent, Irish Volunteers, was executed by firing squad in Cork on May 9th 1916, RIP.
Roger Casement was hanged at Pentonville Prison London August 3rd 1916, RIP.